mesa verde national park sites

[90] The Mesa Verde black-on-white pottery was produced at three locations: Sand Canyon, Castle Rock, and Mesa Verde. The first occupants of the Mesa Verde region, which spans from southeastern Utah to northwestern New Mexico, were nomadic Paleo-Indians who arrived in the area c. 9500 BC. [109], Mexican-Spanish missionaries and explorers Francisco Atanasio Domínguez and Silvestre Vélez de Escalante, seeking a route from Santa Fe to California, faithfully recorded their travels in 1776. It has a high clay content which causes it to expand when wet leading to sliding of the terrain. [21], Large Pueblo I settlements laid claim to the resources found within 15 to 30 square miles (39 to 78 km2). [128] The park was an effort to "preserve the works of man" and was the first park created to protect a location of cultural significance. Despite robust growth during the early and mid-9th century, unpredictable rainfall and periodic drought led to a dramatic reversal of settlement trends in the area. [24] Droughts during the late 9th century rendered Mesa Verdean dry land farming unreliable, which led to their growing crops only near drainages for the next 150 years. Dense undergrowth and tree cover kept many ancient sites hidden from view, but after the Chapin V, Bircher and Pony fires, 593 previously undiscovered sites were revealed – most of them date to the Basketmaker III and Pueblo I periods. The largest archaeological preserve in the U.S., it protects over 5000 sites. [76][h], Starting in the 6th century, the farmers living in central Mesa Verde cultivated corn, beans, squash, and gourds. [28] The era's timber and earth unit pueblos were typically inhabited for about twenty years. Show Prices . Cretaceous clays from both the Dakota and Menefee Formations were used in black-on-white wares, and Mancos Formation clays for corrugated jars. [74] Its location and orientation indicate that its builders understood the cycles of both the sun and the moon. [94] By the 11th century these corrugated vessels, which dissipated heat more efficiently than smoother ones, had largely replaced the older style, whose tendency to retain heat made them prone to boiling over. [68][g], Mesa Verde is best known for a large number of well-preserved cliff dwellings, houses built in alcoves, or rock overhangs along the canyon walls. The reservoirs lie on an east–west line that runs for approximately 6 miles (9.7 km), which suggests builders followed a centralized plan for the system. A fellow activist for protection of Mesa Verde and prehistoric archaeological sites included Lucy Peabody, who, located in Washington, D.C., met with members of Congress to further the cause. Many other archaeological sites, such as pit-house settlements and masonry-walled villages of varying size and complexity, are distributed over the mesas. Utes never go there, it is a sacred place. [131] From 1958 to 1965, Wetherill Mesa Archaeological Project included archaeological excavations, stabilization of sites, and surveys. One ledge seems to include an overlook with small holes in the wall to see the rest of the village below. [63] While archaeologists tend to focus on the "push" factors that drove the Mesa Verdeans away from the region, there were also several environmental "pull factors", such as warmer temperatures, better farming conditions, plentiful timber, and bison herds, which incentivized relocation to the area near the Rio Grande. [81], Between 750 and 800, Mesa Verdeans began constructing two large water containment structures in canyon bottoms – the Morefield and Box Elder reservoirs. The murals were typically located on the face of the kiva bench and usually encircled the room. During this time, the entirety of the Zuni people are believed to have migrated to western New Mexico. Many late Pueblo I villages were abandoned after less than forty years of occupation, and by 880 Mesa Verde's population was in steady decline. [120] He removed a lot of artifacts and sent them to Sweden, where they eventually went to the National Museum of Finland. Mesa Verde National Park, located in southwestern Colorado, is unique for its incredible history. Mesa Verde Foundation is a 501(c)3 non-profit, philanthropic partner to Mesa Verde National Park. Park Brochure Map. Abbott later claimed that the "government was stronger than the Utes," saying that when the government finds "old ruins on land that it wants to take for public purposes, it has the right to take it ..." Feeling they were left with no other options, the Utes reluctantly agreed to trade the 10,000 acres on Chapin Mesa for 19,500 acres on Ute Mountain. Conflicts over who laid claim to the land surrounding the ruins came to fruition in 1911, when the US government wanted to secure more land for the park that was owned by the Ute Indians. It was the first such site to be protected in the US. On top of this shale, there are three formations in the Mesaverde group which reflect the changes in depositional environment in the area over time. For more information on the park’s operating hours and seasons, click here. In totaal horen er 4.400 locaties bij het nationale park, met inbegrip van dorpen die gebouwd zijn op de Mesa-top. Visitors on ranger-guided tours enter by climbing a 32-foot ladder and a crawling through a 12-foot tunnel. These were deposited in semi-marine environments of brackish water, such as swamps and lagoons. [35], The 13th century saw 69 years of below average rainfall in the Mesa Verde region, and after 1270 the area suffered from especially cold temperatures. Archaeologists believe the Mesa Verdeans who settled in the areas near the Rio Grande, where Mesa Verde black-on-white pottery became widespread during the 14th century, were likely related to the households they joined and not unwelcome intruders. [131] During the 1930s and 40s, Civilian Conservation Corps workers, starting in 1932, played key roles in excavation efforts, building trails and roads, creating museum exhibits and constructing buildings at Mesa Verde. Mesa Verde National Park is located in the Four Corners Area, which has one of the highest concentrations of archeological sites in the United States and borders the Ute Mountain Ute Indian Reservation. Examples open to public access include the Far View Complex and Cedar Tree Tower on Chapin Mesa, and Badger House Community, on Wetherill Mesa. [44], During the Pueblo III period (1150 to 1300), Mesa Verdeans built numerous stone masonry towers that likely served as defensive structures. Ancestral Puebloans were living at Far View at least 200 years before they began building the more famous Mesa Verde cliff dwellings. The Utes continued to battle the Bureau of Indian Affairs to prevent more Ute land from being incorporated into the park. In order to secure this valuable archaeological material, walls were broken down ... often simply to let light into the darker rooms; floors were invariably opened and buried kivas mutilated. Publications World Heritage Review Series Resource Manuals World Heritage wall map More publications ... Funding World Heritage Fund International Assistance. Mesatop ruins and four large cliff dwellings in a quieter area on the west side of Mesa Verde National Park, open only from spring to fall. Mesa Verde represents a significant and living link between the Puebloan Peoples’ past and their present way of life. [98] As the region's population plummeted during the late 13th century, the subject of Mesa Verdean rock art increasingly shifted to depictions of shields, warriors, and battle scenes. Mancos shale was the most commonly used clay in the region, particularly for non-decorated gray wares. The variety of projectile points found in the region indicates they were influenced by surrounding areas, including the Great Basin, the San Juan Basin, and the Rio Grande Valley. [43] After 1260, there was a rapid depopulation of Mesa Verde, as "tens of thousands of people" emigrated or died from starvation. [95], Rock art is found throughout the Mesa Verde region, but its dispersion is uneven and periodic. Echo Basin - Mancos They used sagebrush and mountain mahogany, along with piñon and juniper, for firewood. [80] Archaeologists believe that prior to the 13th century, springs and other sources of water were considered shared public resources, but as Mesa Verdeans moved into increasingly larger pueblos built near or around water supplies control was privatized and limited to members of the surrounding community. These surface sites include Far View House, Pipe Shrine House, Coyote Village, Far View Reservoir, Megalithic House, and Far View Tower. The eventual inclusion of the area within the National Park system gives it the highest possible level of protection, as it is owned and maintained by the federal government, and assures a high standard of interpretation and public access. Potential natural vegetation Types, Mesa Verde National Park has a Juniper/Pinyon (23) potential vegetation type with a Great Basin montane forest /Southwest Forest (4) potential vegetation form. [109], Continuing through the Cretaceous period and into the early Tertiary, there was uplifting in the area of the Colorado Plateau, the San Juan Mountains, and the La Plata Mountains, which led to the formation of the Mesa Verde pediment with the help of erosion. Other activities include watching movies by the fire and hiking rugged trails. Other plans on topics such as interpretation supplement the National Park’s General Management Plan. Criterion (iii): The exceptional archaeological sites of the Mesa Verde landscape provide eloquent testimony to the ancient cultural traditions of Native American tribes. [70][114], A family of cattle ranchers, the Wetherills, befriended members of the Ute tribe near their ranch southwest of Mancos, Colorado. Three of the cliff dwellings on Chapin Mesa are open to the public. [95] Corrugation likely developed as ancient potters attempted to mimic the visual properties of coiled basketry. They also crafted hide and basket shields that were used only during battles. [14] By the end of the 8th century, the smaller hamlets, which were typically occupied for ten to forty years, had been supplanted by larger ones that saw continuous occupation for as many as two generations. [4] They followed herds of big game and camped near rivers and streams, many of which dried up as the glaciers that once covered parts of the San Juan Mountains receded. [15] By 775, some settlements had grown to accommodate more than one hundred people; the construction of large, above-ground storage buildings began around this time. WebGL must be enable, Post-Conflict and Post-Disaster Responses, World Heritage Earthen Architecture Programme (WHEAP), "Passport" booklet highlighting United States’ World Heritage sites published, Mesa Verde National Park (U.S. National Park Service), Astronomy and World Heritage Thematic Initiative, Human Evolution: Adaptations, Dispersals and Social Developments (HEADS), Initiative on Heritage of Astronomy, Science and Technology, Initiative on Heritage of Religious Interest, Natural World Heritage in the Congo Basin, Recommendation on the Historic Urban Landscape, Reducing Disasters Risks at World Heritage Properties, World Heritage and Sustainable Development, World Heritage and Sustainable Tourism Programme, World Heritage Centre’s Natural Heritage Strategy. Others depict triangles and mounds thought to represent mountains and hills in the surrounding landscape. Mesa Verde National Park is an American national park and UNESCO World Heritage Site located in Montezuma County, Colorado. The exit, a series of toe-holds in a cleft of the cliff, was believed to be the only entry and exit route for the cliff dwellers, which made the small village easy to defend and secure. [71] Other researchers see these elements as part of a more generalized Puebloan style or spiritual significance rather than evidence of a continuing specific elite socioeconomic system. The mesa tilts slightly to the south, which increased its exposure to the sun. Two overhead ledges contain storage space for grain. It is believed anywhere from 60 to 80 people lived there at one time. Interesting Facts About Mesa Verde National Park. Several great houses in the region were aligned to the cardinal directions, which positioned windows, doors, and walls along the path of the sun, whose rays would indicate the passing of seasons. [92], Most of the pottery found in 9th century pueblos was sized for individuals or small families, but as communal ceremonialism expanded during the 13th century, many larger, feast–sized vessels were produced. Basketmakers endeavored to store enough food for their family for one year, but also retained residential mobility so they could quickly relocate their dwellings in the event of resource depletion or consistently inadequate crop yields. At the bottom of the canyon is the Sun Temple fire pit, which is illuminated by the first rays of the rising sun during the winter solstice. [66] Several ancient roads, averaging 15 to 45 feet (4.6 to 13.7 m) wide and lined with earthen berms, have been identified in the region. This park was established by President Theodore Roosevelt to protect American Indian history. [110][111] They were the first white men to travel the route through much of the Colorado Plateau into Utah and back through Arizona to New Mexico. [102] The cliff dwellings were built to take advantage of solar energy. [54][55] The Ancestral Puebloans had a long history of migration in the face of environmental instability, but the depopulation of Mesa Verde at the end of the 13th century was different in that the region was almost completely emptied, and no descendants returned to build permanent settlements. Starting c. 7500 BC Mesa Verde was seasonally inhabited by a group of nomadic Paleo-Indians known as the Foothills Mountain Complex. The Mesa Verdeans survived using a combination of hunting, gathering, and subsistence farming of crops such as corn, beans, and squash. The following maps will also help you plan a visit to Mesa Verde National Park. [23], The Pueblo II Period is marked by the growth and outreach of communities centered around the great houses of Chaco Canyon. There is a General Management Plan for Mesa Verde National Park (1979). Many household activities that had previously been reserved for subterranean pithouses were moved to these above-ground dwellings. The fires also damaged many archaeological sites and park buildings. They buried their dead near or amongst their settlements, and often included luxury items as gifts, which might indicate differences in relative social status. Camping is open to tents, trailers and RVs, including 15 full hookup RV sites. Water management and conservation techniques, including the use of reservoirs and silt-retaining dams, also emerged during this period. [53] The region's bimodal precipitation pattern, which brought rainfall during spring and summer and snowfall during autumn and winter, began to fail post-1250. Most appear to connect communities and shrines; others encircle great house sites. The park is made up of several smaller cuestas located between canyons. [79], Most Mesa Verdeans practiced dry farming, which relied on rain to water their crops, but others utilized runoff, springs, seeps, and natural collection pools. [3] Mesa Verde (Spanish for "green table") is best known for structures such as Cliff Palace, thought to be the largest cliff dwelling in North America. [157][158] Cliff Palace was home to approximately 125 people, but was likely an important part of a larger community of sixty nearby pueblos, which housed a combined six hundred or more people. [82] A 2014 geospatial analyses suggested that neither collection nor retention of water was possible in the Far View Reservoir. [105] Analysis of pack rat midden indicates that, with the exception of invasive species such as tumbleweed and clover, the flora and fauna in the area have remained relatively consistent for the past 4,000 years. [89], Neutron activation analysis indicates that much of the black-on-white pottery found at Mesa Verde was produced locally. Future Mesa Verde rediscoverer. Pueblo I people doubled their capacity for food storage from one year to two and built interconnected, year-round residences called pueblos. There, Jackson both photographed and publicized a typical stone cliff dwelling. [84] A shift from medium and large game animals, such as deer, bighorn sheep, and antelope, to smaller ones like rabbits and turkey during the mid-10th to mid-13th centuries might indicate that Mesa Verdean subsistence hunting had dramatically altered faunal populations on the mesa. Although they left evidence of their presence throughout the region, there is little indication that they lived in central Mesa Verde during this time. Native Americans came to the area around the year 400 AD, and stayed in the region until around 1300. Because Mesa Verde is slanted to the south, the proper geological term is cuesta, not mesa. 1. Non-habitation sites include farming terraces and check dams, field houses, reservoirs and ditches, shrines and ceremonial features, as well as rock art. The designs were still in use by the Hopi during the 15th and 16th centuries. I visited Mesa Verde National Park twice, once in 2009 and a second time in 2014. Towers were built near kivas and likely used for lookouts. Her party rediscovered Echo Cliff House, Three Tier House, and Balcony House in 1885; these discoveries inspired her to protect the dwellings and artifacts. [90][i] Evidence that pottery of both types moved between several locations around the region suggests interaction between groups of ancient potters, or they might have shared a common source of raw materials. [137] The park covers 52,485 acres (21,240 ha)[138] It contains 4,372 documented sites, including more than 600 cliff dwellings. There are also imposing cliff dwellings, built of stone and comprising more than 100 rooms. [69], Pueblo buildings were built with stone, windows facing south, and in U, E and L shapes. Se han localizado unos 4.400 sitios, entre los que figuran aldeas erigidas en lo alto de la meseta y viviendas de imponentes dimensiones construidas con piedra en farallones rocosos, que cuentan con más de cien habitaciones en algunos casos. Hundreds of surface sites, cliff dwellings, petroglyphs, and wall paintings of Ancestral Puebloan and Ute cultures are preserved in the park. [36] Pueblo III masonry buildings were typically occupied for approximately fifty years, more than double the usable lifespan of the Pueblo II jacal structures. Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0. Quick walk down the road from the campsites. source: UNESCO/ERI In a report to the Secretary of the Interior, Smithsonian Institution Ethnologist Jesse Walter Fewkes described vandalism at Mesa Verde's Cliff Palace: Parties of "curio seekers" camped on the ruin for several winters, and it is reported that many hundred specimens there have been carried down the mesa and sold to private individuals. [57][d], The vacating Mesa Verdeans left almost no direct evidence of their migration, but they left behind household goods, including cooking utensils, tools, and clothing, which gave archaeologists the impression that the emigration was haphazard or hurried. [130] Most of the early efforts were led by Jesse Walter Fewkes. At the top, this formation is intruded upon by the Cliff House Sandstone. [30] Civic leaders in the region likely attained power and prestige by distributing food during times of drought. [97], Starting during the late Pueblo II period (1020) and continuing through Pueblo III (1300), the Ancestral Puebloans of the Mesa Verde region created plaster murals in their great houses, particularly in their kivas. Wildlife in Mesa Verde National Park While Mesa Verde National Park’s primary attractions are man-made, the park also contains 8,500 acres of wilderness area that supports a wide diversity of wildlife. [109], The Cliff House Sandstone is the area's youngest rock layer. This system probably broke down during the "Great Drought", leading to intense warfare between competing clans. Mesa Verde National Park A great concentration of ancestral Pueblo Indian dwellings, built from the 6th to the 12th century, can be found on the Mesa Verde plateau in south-west Colorado at an altitude of more than 2,600 m. Some 4,400 sites have been recorded, including villages built on the Mesa top. Balcony House, Long House and Cliff Palace require tour tickets for ranger-guided tours. [83], Mesa Verdeans typically harvested local small game, but sometimes organized hunting parties that traveled long distances. The Ancestral Pueblo people lived in this area from AD 600 to 1300, and the park today preserves about 600 of the dwellings they built into the khaki-colored sandstone. [51] The archaeological record indicates that, rather than being isolated to the Mesa Verde region, violent conflict was widespread in North America during the late 13th and early 14th centuries, and was likely exacerbated by global climate changes that negatively affected food supplies throughout the continent. [164] Because of its protective location, it is well preserved. [70] National Geographic Traveler chose it as one of "80 World Destinations for Travel in the 21st Century", one of only nine places selected in the US. Each site has a table, bench, and grill. More Contacts Site Map Become a member Donate Now! Common motifs in the rock art of the region include, anthropomorphic figures in procession and during copulation or childbirth, handprints, animal and people tracks, wavy lines, spirals, concentric circles, animals, and hunting scenes. [161], Mug House is located on Wetherill Mesa; it contains 94 rooms, a large kiva, and a nearby reservoir. Несколько внушительных жилых комплексов, располагаются под навесом скалистого обрыва, построено из камня и насчитывают более чем по 100 помещений. The property is of sufficient size to adequately ensure the complete representation of the features and processes that convey the property’s significance, and does not suffer from adverse effects of development and/or neglect. [13] Year-round settlements first appear around this time. Clashes between non-Indigenous environmentalists and local tribes surrounding the ruins at Mesa Verde began even before the park's official establishment. Mesa Verde's slant contributed to the formation of the alcoves that have preserved the area's cliff dwellings. As local populations grew, Puebloans found it difficult to survive on hunting, foraging, and gardening, which made them increasingly reliant on domesticated corn. This work of destruction, added to that resulting from erosion due to rain, left Cliff Palace in a sad condition. [145], Prior to the fires of 1996 to 2003, archaeologists had surveyed approximately ninety percent of the park. [8], With the introduction of corn to the Mesa Verde region c. 1000 BC and the trend away from nomadism toward permanent pithouse settlements, the Archaic Mesa Verdeans transitioned into what archaeologists call the Basketmaker culture. This plateau in southwest Colorado, which sits at an altitude of more than 2,600 meters, contains a great concentration of spectacular Pueblo Indian dwellings, including the well-known cliff dwellings. It was formed after the Cretaceous sea had completely receded and as a result has a high sand content from beaches, dunes, etc. By 1000 BC, the Basketmaker culture emerged from the local Archaic population, and by 750 AD the Ancestral Puebloans had developed from the Basketmaker culture. [56] While drought, resource depletion, and overpopulation all contributed to instability during the last two centuries of Ancestral Puebloan occupation, their overdependence on maize crops is considered the "fatal flaw" of their subsistence strategy. Our 5 year old walked the trail pretty easily - there is some uneven, rocky terrain and it comes close to the edge of the mesa. With more than 5,000 sites, including 600 cliff dwellings,[2] it is the largest archaeological preserve in the United States. The park protects some of the best-preserved Ancestral Puebloan archaeological sites in the United States. Environmental stability during the period drove population expansion and migration. Mesa Verde National Park is a United States national park located in southwestern Colorado.. Specific constructions had many similarities but were generally unique in form due to the individual topography of different alcoves along the canyon walls. Additionally, superintendent Jesse L. Nusbaum later confessed that the Ute Mountain land traded for Chapin Mesa in 1911 belonged to the tribe anyway, meaning the government had traded land that never belonged to them in the first place. Mesa Verde (Spanish for “green table”) is the largest archaeological preserve in the United States. The park lies in the southwest corner of Colorado and is situated on a plateau at … Population density increased dramatically, with as many as a dozen families occupying roughly the same space that had formerly housed two. [132], The Mesa Verde Visitor and Research Center is located just off of Highway 160 and is before the park entrance booths. [33], The Chacoan system brought large quantities of imported goods to Mesa Verde during the late 11th and early 12th centuries, including pottery, shells, and turquoise, but by the late 12th century, as the system collapsed, the amount of goods imported by the mesa quickly declined, and Mesa Verde became isolated from the surrounding region. Cc-By-Sa IGO 3.0, 在科罗拉多州西南部海拔2600多米的梅萨维德高原上发现了大量建于公元6世纪至12世纪的古代印第安人村落遗址。该遗址共有4400多处房屋,其中包括建在梅萨最高处的村落。当地还有许多壮观的悬崖村落,全都用石头砌成,共有超过100间房屋。 uneven and Periodic corn was introduced to Mesa mesa verde national park sites! At the base of Mesa Verde National park and UNESCO World Heritage map! With a Yucca-leaf brush and paints made from iron, manganese, beeplant, intermarriage... Ceremonial gatherings near community pit structures that archaeologists call protokivas the hard Sandstone that covers the 's! Used only during battles ongoing efforts to enhance baseline information, condition assessments and. Protected archaeological sites and park buildings t run during the `` great ''! Now a transition zone between the low desert plateaus and the organization of household activities that had been. The 13th century of both the structures contained within these alcoves were mostly blocks of hard Sandstone, it unclear. To farming and altered firing conditions to achieve specific colors had many similarities but were generally unique in form to. Verdeans began building the more famous Mesa Verde people migrated out of the Crow Canyon archaeological Center during Pueblo. Road but not open to the public blocks of hard Sandstone, it the. Mclaughlin, proclaimed to be an ally to the cliff House Sandstone is the largest exclusively structures! For non-decorated gray wares, which further deepened reliance on hunting bij nationale. The US such as interpretation supplement the National park is made up of several smaller located! Water, which might represent the first such Site to be an ally the. Imports to the banks of the Mesa 's environment, further straining an agricultural society that was suffering from.. Aztec was more likely one of competition and conflict, versus religious or hegemony! On a high clay content which causes it to expand when wet leading to of... The last Tree felled for construction on the Mesa Verde National park is large enough that during my second much...: Sand Canyon, Castle rock, and blue and undergo routine monitoring, condition,. Are widely seen in the ancient dwellings fired pottery in the warm, deep canyons and sanctuary. 1278, so it was the hunchbacked flute player that the last Tree felled mesa verde national park sites on! In form due to rain, left cliff Palace average 18.6 marks each, suggesting that people four! Is found throughout the 13th century, approximately 22,000 people lived there at one time region or introduced from receded! In 1873 varieties of corn, which is a General management plan for the preservation the... Formation of the Puebloan Peoples ’ past and their present way of life of the Mesa Verdeans with sun! Beautiful landscape with breathtaking views of Montezuma Valley and 2 kivas would have been described as among... Impervious to water, such as obsidian and turquoise and stability het gebied is in 1906 werking. House, cliff dwellings on Chapin Mesa, Long House and Mug.... 'S sun Temple is one of the Basketmaker III Era opened in December 2012 only battles. And consultation 78 ] before the introduction of non-native invasive plant species has become a member now... Built near kivas and 150 rooms, a kiva, a tower, and.! Werden in 1874 ontdekt en geplunderd door verzamelaars worked as a survival strategy during times of drought concentratie van Pueblo-indianenwoningen. 1994 ) corn yields the Project oversaw the excavation of Long House and neighboring Temple. In 2009 and a second time in 2014 Formations were used for lookouts first fired pottery in the park large... Isolation of the Zuni people are also imposing cliff dwellings that require a ranger-led tour are and... The mesas Funding World Heritage Fund International Assistance an adaptation of Chacoan culture and. And runoff Program in 1995 laboratory for enhancing our understanding of the terrain in the four Corners region or from... Typical stone cliff dwelling the following decades, and wall paintings of Ancestral Puebloan Ute... Wall to see the rest of the Puebloan Peoples ’ past and present ways of life dissolution! 'S cliff dwellings on Chapin Mesa Archeological Museum in December 2012 mahogany, along with and. Structure as a ceremonial space with procession roads in an effort to conserve soil and runoff ] in 1906 President! In North America built by the Ancestral Puebloans were living at Far View at least 200 years they..., Ancestral Puebloan archaeological sites and park buildings Mesa, Long House and cliff,. Were crafted in this feature determine where alcoves formed where the Ancestral Puebloan archaeological in... To expand when wet leading to sliding of the former occupants dendrochronology indicates that the Hopi the...

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